Volume 6, Issue 4, July 2020, Page: 67-83
Are There a Strategic Approach of Entrepreneurship in Africa
Sylla Mamadou, Faculty of Economics and Management, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan-Cocody, Côte d’ivoire
Received: Jun. 7, 2020;       Accepted: Jul. 16, 2020;       Published: Jul. 28, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ebm.20200604.12      View  148      Downloads  28
Abstract
Entrepreneurship is a logical consequence of the transformation of our society. From the industrial era to the information age, the north and south find themselves in an almost similar situation: the need to review their socio-economic fundamentals and the need to devise new approaches in the field of work. In the near future where our grandchildren and great-grandchildren will discover the "salary" by going to visit the museums! Indeed, our economy, based on industrialization and consumption, dates back to the early 19th century; This is infinitely small on the scale of human history. Other models existed. This is a major issue and a great responsibility for Africa. Our difficulties are twofold: the non-support of companies by banks and the immaturity of the working population. This leads to a high corporate "mortality" rate. Taxation of African countries is not a development tax. She kills them; The entrepreneurship section is made up of editors with a wide variety of interests. They share a very strong interest, even a daily obsession, for innovation in the broadest sense, companies that move and move the African continent. Their mission is to share their thoughts on the private sector, to promote inspiring entrepreneurs, social entrepreneurs, and to participate in debates on the role of companies in development. Entrepreneurship in Africa is fashionable and full of virtues. Like the term "innovation," to which it is often associated, the word "entrepreneurship" swirls in private and public managerial modes. This is why it is beneficial to step back and frame the issues and strategic approach to entrepreneurship in Africa. Everyone is an entrepreneur, some entrepreneurial successes are magnified in the big press, even in management training around the figures of transcendent and rich individuals. Entrepreneurs would be innovators, entrepreneurs' "bosses", start-ups in the new digital economy, entrepreneurship is all-round and financed in new forms. The interest of our article is to analyze entrepreneurship in Africa which is a serious matter. The overall approach to entrepreneurship is not just about starting a business, but about "entrepreneurial acting". Action is broader than action. We engage in a practitioner's approach that builds his relationship to the environment as he discovers and builds it. This is the ambition of the African entrepreneurship factory today: to act and think as an entrepreneur, in entrepreneurship.
Keywords
Approach, Strategic, Entrepreneurship, Africa
To cite this article
Sylla Mamadou, Are There a Strategic Approach of Entrepreneurship in Africa, European Business & Management. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2020, pp. 67-83. doi: 10.11648/j.ebm.20200604.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
A tale of passion: New insights into 530 Academy of Management Review July entrepreneurship from a metaphor parenthood. Journal of Business Venturing, 20: pp 23-45.
[2]
ADLER P A., (1994) Observational Techniques, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1994, 145 p.
[3]
Africa. Entrepreneurship in Africa: Culture, financing and development. Paris, John Libbey Eurotext, pp 7-14.
[4]
ALLINSON, CW, CHELL E., Hayes, J. (2000), "Intuition and entrepreneurial," Tamara Journal for Critical Inquiry Organization, Vol. 10, Issue 1, pp. 31-39. 10.3917/rips.040.0143.
[5]
ANDREWS, KR (1971), "The concept of corporate strategy", Third Edition, p 245 AURIFEILLE, J. HERNANDEZ, E. (1991) "Detection of entrepreneurial potential of students," Economies and Societies Science Series Management, pp 39-55.
[6]
Asheim B Boschma R Martin R Chwartz Tödtling D, F (eds.): Handbook of Regional Innovation and Growth. Cheltenham, Northampton: Edward Elgar, pp. 269-281.
[7]
entrepreneurship >>, entrepreneurship Review, Vol 10, No. 2, p. 7-14.
[8]
Asquin A. Condor R and C. Schmitt (2012) << for the mobilization of the project concept in research in Bandura A. (1989a), "A Theory of Cognitive Social Action" Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective (pp 127-138.). North Holland: Elsevier.
[9]
Bandura A. (1989c), "Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of control over AIDS infection" In VM Mays, G. W. Albee, SF & Schneider, The primary prevention of AIDS (Eds.): Psychological Approaches (pp 128-141.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
[10]
BAROU, J. (2012). The sub-Saharan African immigrants in Europe: a new diaspora ?. European Journal of International Migration, 28 (1), 147-167.
[11]
BAUM, JR, Locke, EA, Smith, KG (2001), "A multidimensional model of venture growth", Academy of Management Journal, pp 292-303.
[12]
Bruneau, M. (2007). The territories of identity and collective memory in the Diaspora. The geographical area, (4), pp 328-333.
[13]
BRUNO, AV, & Tyebjee, TT (1982), "The environment for entrepreneurship," Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship, pp 288-315.
[14]
A. Carsrud, BRANNBACK M., (2011), "Entrepreneurial Motivations: What Do We Still Need to Know?", Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 9-26.
[15]
CAZES P., A. CHOUAKRIA, DIDAY E., (1997), "Extension of the principal component analysis to interval-type data," Journal of Applied Statistics, Volume 45, No. 3, pp 5-24.
[16]
CHABAUD D. SAMMUT S. (2014), "The behavior of entrepreneurs and buyers: the contributions of situated approaches" Journal of Entrepreneurship (Deboeck Superior), pp. pp 7-10. Chigunta, F., SCHNURR, J. JAMES-WILSON, D. and TORRES, V. (2005). Being "real" about youth entrepreneurship in eastern and southern Africa. SEED WorkingPaper, 72. pp 1-93 CLAIRE L., (2012), "Re-Storing the Entrepreneurial Ideal: Lifestyle Entrepreneurs have Hero?
[17]
DEJAEGHERE, J. and BAXTER, A. (2014). Entrepreneurship education for youth in Subsaharan Africa: A capabilities approach as an alternative to neoliberalism year framework's individualizing Risks. Progress in Development Studies, 14 (1), pp 61-76.
[18]
DELAYE, R. DURU, F. and Okamba, E. (2011). Cultural diversity and employability: survey on the strengths of the original culture in the process of improving the employability of students speaking African, in management science. Management & Avenir, 43 (3), pp 180-202.
[19]
DOKOU KOKOU G A. (2011), Territories and entrepreneurship: the experiences of entrepreneurial cities, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2011, pp 326.
[20]
DOKOU KOKOU, GKA, (2014), Territorial Identity, local neighborhoods, and entrepreneurial capacities, Paris L'Harmattan, 2014, pp 355.
[21]
DOKOU, AKG, OBRECHT, JJ, BARAY, J., PELE, M., (2016), The sustainable entrepreneurship. Generational approach in terms of entrepreneurial capabilities, Management Review, 2000, 2016/2, Volume 33, PP 181-212.
[22]
Editions L'Harmattan. pp 207.
[23]
EIJDENBERG, EL, & MASUREL, E. (2013), "Entrepreneurial motivation in a Least Developed Country: push factors and pull factors Among MSEs in Uganda," Journal of Enterprising Culture, pp 19-43).
[24]
ELKAN, W. (1988). Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa. The World Bank Research Observer, 3 (2), pp 171-188.
[25]
Fayolle, A. (2000), entrepreneurial dynamism and economic growth: a France-US comparison, T. VERSTRAETE, History undertaken - The realities of entrepreneurship. Managements and Societies Press, pp 297.
[26]
Fayolle, A., & DEGEORGE, JM (2012), "entrepreneurial dynamics," De Boeck, pp 275.
[27]
FERRARO FR, Dukart A., (1998), "Cognitive inhibition in Individuals prone to homophobia," Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 54, Issue 2, pp. 155-162.
[28]
The -J Filion (2008) << entrepreneurial representations: a field of study emerging >> International Journal of Psychology, vol 14, No 32 p. 13-43. Filion LJ (2017) and undertake to surround yourself human editions, Montreal.
[29]
GAD, M. (2012). A better future for Africa. OECD Observer, (288), pp 70-71.
[30]
GARTNER, WB (1988). 'Who is an entrepreneur?' is the wrong question. American Journal of Small Business, 12 (4), pp 11-32.
[31]
GARTNER, WB (1990), "What are we talking about When We Talk about entrepreneurship?" Journal of Business Venturing, pp 15-28.
[32]
GASSE, Y. (2003), "The influence of the environment in entrepreneurship," Organizations and territories, pp 49-56.
[33]
GASSE, Y., LOVES, A.. (2000), "Occupation: Entrepreneur," Les Éditions Transcontinental Inc., Montreal, Charlesbourg, pp 145.
[34]
Gégoire DA Cornelissen J DIMOV D & E BURG (van) (2015), << the mind in the middle: talking stock of affect and cognition in reasearch >> Entrepreneurship, International Reviews of Management Journal, 17 (2), pp 125-142.
[35]
GRILO, I. et IRIGOYEN, JM (2006), "Entrepreneurship in the US: to wish and not to be", Small Business Economics, pp 305-318.
[36]
Grossetti M. BARTHE JF., (2010) "Dynamics of interpersonal networks and organizations in business start-ups," French Review of Sociology, No. 49-3, pp. 585-612.
[37]
HAYTON, JC, GEORGE, G. and ZAHRA, SA (2002). National culture and entrepreneurship: A review of behavioral research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26 (4), pp 33-52.
[38]
KA Smith (1993), Nationality and work role interactions: a cultural contrast of Israeli and US entrepreneurs 'versus managers' needs, Journal of Business Venturing, 8, 6, 499-512. KATZ, J., & Gartner, WB (1988), "Properties of emerging organizations", Academy of Management Review, pp 429-441.
[39]
KRUEGER, N. (1993), "The impact of prior exposure is entrepreneurial perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability," Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, pp 5-22.) Legendre, R. (1993), "Dictionary of current education," Eska, pp 150.
[40]
Kshetri, N. (2007). Institutional exchange Affecting entrepreneurial in China. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 12 (04), pp 415-432.
[41]
Kshetri, N. (2011). Institutional and economic foundations of entrepreneurship in Africa: An overview. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 16 (01), pp 9-35.
[42]
Leadership Style: Evidence from Russia, California Management Review, Vol. 25, No. 4. Marchesnay M. (2012), Innovations, territories and international capitalism in Cardebat Uzunidi JM and D. (ed.): Territories Green, Paris, L'Harmattan, pp. 181-207.
[43]
Hare P., C. Schmitt (2012), << In the heart of entrepreneurship research: business practices in SCHMITT >> C. Hare P (eds), New perspectives on entrepreneurship: practice entrepreneurial activities, Presses university of Nancy, collection action << >> Organizations, pp 13-22.
[44]
LIPMAN, A. (1969), "The Colombian contractor in Bogota," University of Miami Press, pp 144.
[45]
March-April 2015, pp. 103-127.
[46]
McCLELLAND D. (1961), The Achieving Society, The Free Press, 1961, pp 278.
[47]
MCMULLEN, JS, BAGBY, D., Palich, LE (2008), "Economic freedom and the motivation to undertake in entrepreneurial action", Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, pp 875-895.
[48]
Munemo, J. (2012). Entrepreneurship In Developing Countries: Is Africa Different?. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 17 (01). pp 1-12.
[49]
Naudé, W. (2010). Entrepreneurship, Developing Countries, and development economics: new approaches and insights. Small business economics, 34 (1), pp 1-12.
[50]
PECOUD, A. (2005). The challenges of immigrant entrepreneurship. Journal of International Migration and Integration / Review of integration and international migration, 6 (3-4), pp 377-403.
[51]
DOORS, A. (1999). Globalization from below [The emergence of transnational communities]. Proceedings of the Social Science Research, 129 (1), pp 15-25.
[52]
Psychologist, 44, pp. 1175-1184.
[53]
REYNOLDS, PD (1991). Sociology and Entrepreneurship: concepts and contributions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16 (2), pp 47-70.
[54]
SAINT-JEAN E (2010), << function of mentors novice entrepreneur >> Review of Entrepreneurship, Vol. 9, pp34-55.
[55]
SANTELLI, E. (2010). BETWEEN HERE AND THERE: THE JOURNEY OF CONTRACTORS TRANSNATIONAL. Economic investment in Algeria descendants of Algerian immigration to France. Sociological, 1 (3), pp 393-411.
[56]
Sarasvathy S. and S. Venkataraman (2011) << Entrepreneurship as method: Open issues for future year entreneurial >> entrepreneurship theory and pratice, vol 35, No. 1, p. 113 -135.
[57]
SCHMITT C (2012) << VIDEO: a method to help the contractor to design a scenario from an opportunity in Filion LJ >> Ananou SCHMITT C and C (dir), Successful entrepreneurship without business plan Paris, Editions Eyrolles p. 99-112.
[58]
SCHMITT C HUSSON J (2014) << Accompany entrepreneurial project: fresh look at coaching >> Entrepreneurship and Innovation, col 2 No. 21 P. 10-18.
[59]
SCHMITT C. and Rosker E (2015) << When undertaking know is knowing conceive >> Review of Management Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 273 -274 p. 71-82.
[60]
SCHMITT-Rodermund, E. (2004), "Pathways to successful entrepreneurship: Parenting, personality, early entrepreneurial competence, and interests", Journal of Vocational Behavior, pp 498-518.
[61]
SCOTT, MG, Twomey, DF (1985), "The long-term supply of Entrepreneurs: students' career aspirations in relation to entrepreneurship," Journal of Small Business Management, pp 1-5.
[62]
SHANE, S. Locke, EA, Collins, CJ (2003), "Entrepreneurial motivation," Human Resource Management RepView, pp 257-279.
[63]
Shapero, A., SOKOL, L. (1982), "The social dimensions of entrepreneurship," Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship, pp 72-90.
[64]
Smilor, RW (1997), "Entrepreneurship: Reflections on a subversive activity", Journal of Business Venturing, pp 341-346.
[65]
Takyi-ASIEDU, S. (1993). Some socio-cultural factors retarding entrepreneurial activity in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Business Venturing, 8 (2), pp 91-98.
[66]
Thurik, R. and M. DEJARDIN (2011), The impact of culture is entrepreneurial, The European Business Review, January-February, pp 57-59.
[67]
Thurik, R. and M. DEJARDIN (2012), Entrepreneurship and Culture, in: E. Masurel and van Gelderen, eds, Entrepreneurship in Context, London: Routledge, pp 175-186.
[68]
Thurik, R. DEJARDIN, M., (2012), "The impact of culture on entrepreneurship," Reflections and prospects for 2012/2 economy (Volume LI), p. 75-81 TORRES, O. (1999), SMEs; Flammarion, pp 128.
[69]
University model, in Tersa V. Menzies (ed), Entrepreneurship and the Canadian universities, St Catherines, ON, Brock University, chp11, p. 71-76.
[70]
Vallerand, RJ, HOULFORT, N. (2003), "Passion at work: towards a new conceptualization" Emerging Perspectives Values in Organizations, Greenwich, pp 187-204.
[71]
VERHEUL I., R. Thurik, HESSELS J. VAN DER ZWAN P., (2010), "Factors Influencing the Entrepreneurial Commitment of Opportunity and Necessity entrepreneurs" SCALES, Scientific Analysis of Entrepreneurship and SMEs, pp. 57-79.
[72]
VERHEUL, I., SQUARE, M., & Thurik, R. (2009), "Allocation of time and productivity in new ventures of female and male entrepreneurs," Small Business Economics, pp 273-291. VERHEUL, I., STEL, AV, & Thurik, R. (2006), "Explaining female and male entrepreneurship at the country level," Entrepreneurship and regional development, pp 151-183.
[73]
Waldinger, R. (2006). "Transnationalism" of immigrants and the presence of the past. European Journal of International Migration, 22 (2), pp 23-41.
[74]
Wennekers, ARM, AR Thurik, AJ VAN STEL and Noorderhaven N. (2007), Uncertainty avoidance and the rate of business ownership across 21 OECD countries, 1976- 2004, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 17, 2, 133-160.
[75]
Williams, N., & Williams, CC (2012), "Evaluating the socio-spatial contingency of entrepreneurial motivations: A case study of English Deprived Urban Neighborhoods", Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, pp 661-684.
[76]
ZELLWEGER, T., Sieger, P., HALTER, F. (2011), "Should I stay or should I go? Career choice intentions of students with family business background, "Journal of Business Venturing, pp 521-536.
Browse journals by subject